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Russian Studies Research Guide

About Chicago and Turabian Style

Chicago or Turabian style is most used by the Business, History, and Fine Arts disciplines with Chicago style being published since 1906. There are two sub-styles within Chicago: notes-bibliography style and author-date style. Notes-bibliography is preferred by those in the humanities. Author-date style is preferred by those in the social, natural, and physical sciences. Please consult your instructor on their preferred method. 



Chicago and Turabian Manuals

The Chicago and Turabian styles are largely the same. Kate L. Turabian designed her guide specifically for students and researchers when she worked as dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for 30 years. Her Turabian guide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style and focuses on the rules most important for students’ papers and other research not intended for publication. If needing to cite specifically in the Turabian style, consult that manual.

Author-Date System

The author-date system is used by many in the physical, natural, and social sciences and is recommended by Chicago for works in those areas. Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by the author’s last (family) name, the publication date of the work cited, and a page number if needed. Full details appear in the reference list—usually titled “References” or “Works Cited”—in which the year of publication appears immediately after the author’s name.This arrangement makes it easy to follow a text citation to the corresponding full source in the reference list. 

In-text example:

This prevarication provided an easy way to present to the public the ways in which their allies had abandoned them, but also acted as ministerial peace propaganda. (Hill, 251)

Reference list example: 

Hill, B.W. “Oxford, Bolingbroke, and the Peace of Utrecht.” The Historical Journal 26, no.2.

Notes-Bibliography System

In the notes-bibliography system favored by many writers in the humanities, bibliographic citations are provided in notes, preferably supplemented by a bibliography. The notes, whether footnotes or endnotes, are usually numbered and correspond to superscript note reference numbers in the text; in electronic formats, notes and note numbers are usually linked. Notes are styled much like running text, with authors’ names in normal order and the elements separated by commas or parentheses.

In-text example:

Article 4 stated that, in the case that Philip duc d’Anjou did not vacate the throne of Spain, “the Most Christian King and Contracting Princes and State shall take in concert the proper measure to assure the full effect of the convention.”9

Footnote Example:

 9 R.B. Mowat, A History of European Diplomacy, 1451-1789 (London: Edward Arnold & Co., 1928), 169.

Bibliography Example:

Mowat, R.B. A History of European Diplomacy, 1451-1789. London: Edward Arnold & Co., 1928.

Further Resources

At the Mansfield Library

Electronic copy:

The Chicago Manual of Style Online. Seventeenth Edition.

Hardcopies at the Reference Desk:

The Chicago Manual of Style. Seventeenth Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017.

Turabian, Kate, et al. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Ninth Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018.

Online Guide:

Turabian Quick Guide

Guide for Turabian with sample citations. 

The OWL at Purdue University

OWL resources will help you learn to use the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citations and the Bibliography page, as well as CMOS sample papers, slide presentations, and the CMOS classroom poster.


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