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HSTR 437: US - Latin American Relations

This guide will help you get started in your research for History 437.

Why Chicago/Turabian?

Research papers often build on the work of previous research. Whenever you write a paper and use the material of another author, you must document that source.

Documentation credits the author and publisher of the original work and provides the necessary information for readers to consult the same sources.

Further Resources

At the Mansfield Library

(ask at the Information Desk):

The Chicago Manual of Style. Fifteenth Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Turabian, Kate, et al. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Seventh Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Strunk, Jr., William and E.B. White.  The Elements of Style, fourth edition.  Longman, 1999.  (any edition is fine; one on reserve at UM Information Center desk)

Online Guides:

Bedford St. Martin's

University of Wisconsin Writing Center

Chicago Manual of Style Online

How to Format a Bibliography

Bibliographies formatted in Chicago or Turabian Style require specific spacing, indentation,  underlining and punctuation. Please click here to download a sample Bibliography with examples for all kinds of sources

In-text Citations


 There are a few different ways to cite quotations using the Turabian/Chicago citation style. While in the past the footnote and endnote methods were more common, recently the parenthetical method has become more accepted. The citation can be done in several ways, but the author, publishing date and page number (or verse or paragraph number) must be included. The following examples are taken from Kate L. Turabian’s book, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed.

Quotation 1

Turabian (2007) is careful to point out the requirement that “you list all sources in a reference list” (216).

Quotation 2

The importance of proper citation cannot be understated; indeed, readers rely upon accurately cited sources (Turabian 2007, 217).

Quotation 3

Turabian states:

Although sources and their citations come in almost endless variety, you are likely to use only a few kinds. While you may need to look up details to cite some unusual sources, you can easily learn basic patterns for the kinds that you will use most often (2007, 217).

Important to Note!

  • If an article does not list page numbers, such as a full-text HTML article from an online database, use a “descriptive locator” such as a heading or section name following the word under.

  • For anything inserted within the quotation that is not part of the original text brackets, rather than parentheses, should be used.

  • If a word is misspelled or used incorrectly in the original text, leave it uncorrected in the quotation with a bracketed [sic] following it.

  • If any word or number of words is/are omitted from the original text in the quotation, an ellipsis in parentheses (…) must be in place of the missing text.

  • To use a quotation from more than one author include both authors’ last names, or for many authors, the primary author’s last name followed by the phrase “et al.”.

  • Even if information from a source is paraphrased, it still must be cited.