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PSCI 480: Research Methods: Citation Help

Library resources in political science

Further Resources

At the Mansfield Library

The Chicago Manual of Style Online. Fifteenth Edition.

To see a print copy, ask for one of these handbooks at the Information Desk:

The Chicago Manual of Style. Fifteenth Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Turabian, Kate, et al. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Seventh Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Online Guide:

University of Wisconsin Writing Center

How to Format a Bibliography

Bibliographies formatted in Chicago or Turabian style require specific spacing, indentation, underlining and punctuation. Download this sample bibliography for examples.

In-text Citations


Chicago/Turabian style allows more than one method of citing quotations. In the past this style required footnotes or endnotes, but now the parenthetical method is also allowed. In each case include the author, publishing date and page number (or verse or paragraph number). The following examples are from Kate L. Turabian’s book, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed.

Quotation 1

Turabian (2007) is careful to point out the requirement that “you list all sources in a reference list” (216).

Quotation 2

The importance of proper citation cannot be understated; indeed, readers rely upon accurately cited sources (Turabian 2007, 217).

Quotation 3

Turabian states:

Although sources and their citations come in almost endless variety, you are likely to use only a few kinds. While you may need to look up details to cite some unusual sources, you can easily learn basic patterns for the kinds that you will use most often (2007, 217).

Important to Note

  • If an article does not list page numbers, such as a full-text HTML article from an online database, use a “descriptive locator” such as a heading or section name following the word under.
  • If a word is misspelled or used incorrectly in the original text, leave it uncorrected in the quotation with a bracketed [sic] following it.
  • If any word or number of words is/are omitted from the original text in the quotation, an ellipsis in parentheses (…) must be in place of the missing text.
  • To use a quotation from more than one author include both authors’ last names, or for many authors, the primary author’s last name followed by the phrase “et al.”
  • Even if information from a source is paraphrased, it still must be cited.