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According to Walker and Taylor (2006) there are five principles of referencing:
Neville (2007) discusses why referencing is important. He provides nine reasons, though acknowledges there are likely more: Tracing the origins of ideas, Building a web of ideas, Finding your own voice, Validity of arguments, Spreading knowledge, An appreciation, Influences, Marking criteria, and to Avoid plagiarism.
Neville, C. (2007). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. New York: Open University Press.
Walker, J., & Taylor, T. (2006). The Columbia guide to online style (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
The Chicago and Turabian styles are largely the same. Kate L. Turabian designed her guide specifically for students and researchers when she worked as dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for 30 years. Her Turabian guide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style and focuses on the rules most important for students’ papers and other research not intended for publication. If needing to cite specifically in the Turabian style, consult that manual.