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Native American Studies Research Guide: Citation Help

This guide can get you started on your research in NAS!


The Mansfield Library subscribes to RefWorks to make research and citation easier for you. RefWorks is a citation management tool that stores your electronic articles in one place for easy access, organization, citation and sharing. You can save web page content and metadata, create collections to organize or share documents and citations, and upload PDF and Office documents.

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According to Walker and Taylor (2006) there are five principles of referencing:

  1. Intellectual property. “Using someone else’s ideas, words and phrases, or form of presentation without giving proper credit is plagiarism and can carry serious academic as well as legal penalties. Our conception of plagiarism is based on the notion of ownership of intellectual property. In the United States, the logic behind the principle of intellectual property is based on an economic model, stemming from the Constitution’s call to “promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries” (art. 1, sec. 8). … Beyond intellectual property laws, however, are considerations of ethics. Authors give credit for ideas borrowed from others as part of the process of knowledge building; we build upon— or refute— the ideas of others. In turn, our own ideas may become the foundation or building blocks for future work. Additionally, we give credit in the form of citation when we use the ideas of others simply because it is right to do so, thereby adding to our own credibility and authority as scholars.”
  2. Access. References enable readers to find original sources to which the writer is referring.
  3. Economy. Citations provide enough information to convey the source as briefly as possible.
  4. Transparency. Reference styles should be understood by as many people as possible.
  5. Standardization. Explicit standards for each reference style enable readers to understand the meaning of a citation in that style.

Neville (2007) discusses why referencing is important. He provides nine reasons, though acknowledges there are likely more:  Tracing the origins of ideas, Building a web of ideas, Finding your own voice, Validity of arguments, Spreading knowledge, An appreciation, Influences, Marking criteria, and to Avoid plagiarism.


Neville, C. (2007). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. New York: Open University Press.

Walker, J., & Taylor, T. (2006). The Columbia guide to online style (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Chicago/ Turabian Style Guide

Click here for the The Chicago Manual of Style Online.

Research papers generally build on the work of previous writers and researchers.  Whenever you write a paper and use the material of another author, you must document that source.  Documentation credits the author and publisher of the original work and provides the necessary information for readers to consult the same sources. 

The Chicago and Turabian styles are basically the same. Kate L. Turabian designed her guide specifically for students and researchers when she worked as dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for 30 years. Her ‘Turabian’ guide is based on the University of Chicago Press’s Manual of Style and focuses on the rules most important for students’ papers and other research not intended for publication.

Many of the samples in this guide are from the Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition, 2006). If needing to cite specifically in the Turabian style, please consult that particular manual and/or the electronic resources listed.