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Citation Style Guides and Management Tools: In Text Citations

Guide to APA, ASA, Chicago/Turabian, MLA, and science citation styles, as well as information on citing government information and managing your research.

ASA Style Guide

ASA Style Guide

American Sociological Association. 2010. American Sociological Association Style Guide. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.

IN TEXT CITATIONS

REFERENCED MATERIAL

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Author’s name is in text

Bib Format:

Author’s last name (publication year)

Bib Example:

…in another study by Duncan (1959)…

Author’s name is not in text

Bib Format:

(Author Year)

Bib Example:

…whenever it occurred (Gouldner 1963).

Pagination

Bib Format:

Author (Year:Page)

Bib Example:

…Kuhn (1970:71).

Two Authors

Bib Format:

(Author1 and Author2 Year)

Bib Example:

…(Martin and Bailey 1988).

Three Authors

Bib Format:

Cite all three authors in the first citation of the text; thereafter, use et al.

1st instance:  (Author1, Author2, and Author3 Year)

Subsequent: (Author1 et al. Year)

Bib Example:

1st instance:  …(Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962).

Subsequent:  …(Carr et al. 1962).

More than three authors

Bib Format:

Cite only the first author and use et al.

(Author1 et al. Year)

Bib Example:

…(Edwards et al. 1996).

Series of References

Bib Format:

List in alphabetical order or date order, but be consistent throughout.

(Author1 Year; Author2 Year; Author4 and Author5 Year).

Bib Example:

…(Green 1995; Mundi 1987; Smith and Wallop 1989).

Unpublished Material

Bib Format:

Use forthcoming to indicate material scheduled for publication. For dissertations and unpublished papers, cit and date. If no date is available, use N.d. (no date) in place of date.

Bib Example:

Previous studies by Smith (forthcoming) and Jones (N.d.) concluded…

Quotations in Text

SHORT QUOTATIONS

Bib Example:

Wright and Jacobs (1994) found that “the variation in men’s earrings relative to their peers in the labor force was not a reliable predicator of men’s…flight from feminizing occupations” (p.531).

OR

One study found that “the variation in men’s earrings relative to their peers in the labor force was not a reliable predicator of men’s…flight from feminizing occupations” (Wright and Jacobs 1994:531).

LONG QUOTATIONS – generally, 50 words or more (no quotes, single spaced)

Bib Example:

As stated by Wright and Jacobs (1994):

The variation in men’s earrings relative to their peers in the labor force was not a reliable predicator of men’s attrition.  The finding is inconsistent with the prediction that declines in earrings are responsible for male flight from feminizing occupations (P.531).

Note: “P” for “page” is capitalized when the page number is cited alone without author and date information.