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APA (American Psychological Association) Style: Home

Further Resources

Mansfield Library Reference Desk:

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Online Guides:

Bedford St. Martin's

The OWL at Purdue University

Citing Government Documents - APA


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References List

Jones, P.J, & Williams, W.W. (2009). Books that don’t exist. Augusta, ME: Capitol Publishers.

Schiraldi, G.R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth

[Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722 

Herbst-Damm, K.L. & Kulik, J.A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients.

Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225 

JOURNAL ARTICLE WITHOUT DOI (when DOI is not available)
Sillick, T.J., & Schutte, N.S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult

happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from 

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1. A4

Brody, J.E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from

In-Text Citations

There are several ways to cite a quotation within a document with APA format, but the same citation information (author’s last name, publication date and page number) must be included. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) gives these following examples:

Quotation 1 - use double quotations:  
When author is mentioned in the beginning:
Miele (1993) found that "the 'placebo effect', which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [only the first group's] behaviors were studied in this manner" (p.276)

When author is mentioned at the end:
... "the 'placebo effect', which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [only the first group's] behaviors were studied in this manner" (Miele, 1993, p.276)

Quotation 2 - block quotation of 40 words or more; no quotation marks used; indent 5 spaces from the left margin:
Miele (1993) found the following:
The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner.  Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again [emphasis added], even when reel [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies (e.g., Abdullah, 1984; Fox, 1979) were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)

The publication manual also notes that sometimes electronic sources (such as an HTML full-text document from an online database or information from a website) do not have page numbers. If no page numbers are listed, use the paragraph number and, when given, the heading or section title. The manual provides the following two examples:

Quotation 1 - when paragraph numbers are visible, indicate with (para.):
Basu and Jones (2007) went so far as to suggest the need for a new "intellectual framework in which to consider the nature and form of regulation in syberspace" (para.4).

Quotation 2 - document uses headings rather than paragraphs or page numbers:
In their study, Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) found that "the level of perceived disability in patients with fibromyalgia semed best explained by their mental health condition and less by their physical condition" (Discussion section, para.1).

Quotation 3 - when headings are too unwieldy to cite in full, use a short parenthetical title enclosed in quotation marks:
Empirical studies have found mixed results on the efficacy of labels in educating consumers and changing consumption behavior" (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, "Mandatory Labeling has Targeted", para.4).

APA Style Tutorial

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